All of the designed compounds were theoretically predicted to show good absorption (71.62C100%) in humans. favourable interactions within the active site of the CB1 receptor. The designed compounds were synthesized and evaluated for their CB1 receptor antagonistic activity. Parallel artificial membrane permeability assay was performed to evaluate their potential to permeate into the central nervous system wherein it was observed that this compounds did not possess the propensity to cross the blood brain barrier and would be devoid of central nervous system side effects. In pharmacological evaluation, the synthesized compounds (23, 25, 27 and 34) showed significant decrease in food intake suggesting their potential application in the management of obesity through CB1 receptor antagonist activity. Introduction Obesity is an outcome of sustained energy imbalance between MS417 calorie intake and energy expenditure. This energy imbalance may be caused due to physical inactivity and/or sedentary life style1. The overweight and obese populace is usually increasing with an alarming rate day by day. According to World Health Organization report in 2014, more than 1.9 billion adult population was overweight, of which over 600 million adults were obese, while 41 million children below the age of 5 years were overweight or obese. Overweight condition and obesity are measured by body mass index (BMI), a simple index of weight-for-height. BMI equal to or greater than 25?kg/m2 and 30?kg/m2 indicates overweight condition and obesity respectively2. Unfortunately, obesity is usually linked to a number of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, sleep apnoea, dyslipidemia, osteoarthritis and cancer1C3. Therefore, obesity has become a major health problem for the entire human fraternity. A few drugs such as orlistat, lorcaserin, qsymia, contrave, phentermine etc. have been approved by Food and Drug Administration as anti-obesity agents while some others such as sibutramine and rimonabant have been withdrawn due to their serious side effects4. The existing approved drugs have also showed significant side effects. Practically no single drug is available which could be called as an ideal or safe drug for the treatment of obesity. So, there is an unmet medical need to discover newer drugs MS417 for the management of this health condition that would have high efficacy and low adverse effects4C7. Endocannabinoid system (ECS) offers a cue for the development of anti-obesity brokers. ECS consists of endocannabinoids, some enzymes and cannabinoid receptors (CB1R and CB2R)8. CB1 receptors are present in central nervous system (CNS) such as brain stem, hypothalamus, cerebellum and mesolimbic region, and in peripheral MS417 tissues such as eyes, mouth and oral cavity, cardiovascular system, pancreas, liver, gastrointestinal tract (GIT), immune system, skin, bones and skeletal muscles, while CB2 receptors are present mainly in the peripheral immune system3,9. CB1 receptors are coupled to the Gi/o family of G proteins. Activation of CB1 receptors involves signal transduction pathways associated with inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, and to phosphorylation and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) including p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinases ? (ERK1/2)10. CB1 receptors can couple negatively to N- and P/Q-type voltage-operated calcium channels, and positively to A-type and inwardly rectifying potassium channels. They may induce elevation in intracellular calcium through G-protein dependent activation of phospholipase C- (PLC-). All put together these complex signaling cascades regulate various biological activities modulated by CB1 receptors11. ECS is usually involved in physiological functions such as regulation of appetite, energy homeostasis, pain and emotions12,13. Abundant presence of CB1 receptors centrally and peripherally are believed to play an important role in controlling the eating behavior. Over-activation of CB1R leads to increased food intake14. Stimulation of CB1 receptors in the CNS triggers signals for enhanced feeding behaviour15. MS417 The hypothalamic areas play a pivotal role in central control GDF1 of food intake and feeding behavior. Presence of CB1R in the areas of hypothalamic nuclei indicates that ECS is usually directly involved in the feeding regulation. These areas are also interconnected with the mesolimbic dopamine pathways16. Feeding is usually modulated by the hypothalamic ECS by decreasing satiety signals and enhancing orexigenic MS417 signals17. Centrally acting CB1R agonists increase appetite drive by multiple mechanisms involving countering of the inhibitory influence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons present in the mesolimbic pathways16. Administration of THC, a CB1R agonist into the nucleus accumbens raises sucrose-induced hedonic dopamine and activity launch while, CB1R antagonists decrease the extracellular dopamine launch in the nucleus accumbens18. Endocannabinoids could possibly be regulating the meals intake through a neuronal human population from hippocampus having an essential role in.
- This corresponds to peak plasma nitrite following oral nitrate absorption and enterosalivary bioconversion to nitrite
- However, pets injected with RAd