Adult stem cells have attracted scientific attention because they are able to self-renew and differentiate into several specialized cell types

Adult stem cells have attracted scientific attention because they are able to self-renew and differentiate into several specialized cell types. a possible player in establishing particular somatic lineages. In this review, we discuss two new and encouraging research fields in medicine and biology, epigenetics and stem cells, by summarizing the properties of hDT-MSCs and highlighting the recent findings on epigenetic contributions to the regulation of cellular differentiation. (Lizier et al., 2012). Moreover, there are several issues with using FBS since it is commonly used to expand and Rabbit Polyclonal to KLF11 induce differentiation from DPSCs into different lineages. Although FBS provides nutrients, vitamins, growth and attachment factors, hormones, and proteins, these factors can all vary among different lots of FBS. In addition, the possibility exist that viruses, prions, endotoxins, and mycoplasma, among others pathogens, could be present in the FBS and damage the useful odontogenic stem cells; such pathogens may also symbolize a potential risk for disease transmission and xenogeneic immune responses (Pisciotta et al., 2012; Spina et al., 2016). To decrease or replace the use of FBS, other alternatives, such as autologous human serum (HS) and human platelet lysate (HPL), have been put on maintain the stability and differentiation potential of MSCs (Bieback et al., 2009; Ferro et al., 2012a; Pisciotta et al., 2012; Marrazzo et al., 2016). Another recent option for the culture of dental cells is the use of New Zealand FBS (NZ-FBS), which is a clinical-grade serum approved for good developing practices (GMP). The results have shown a significant improvement in cell growth and osteogenic differentiation potential as well as an increase in the expression of angiogenic factors on DPSCs (Spina et al., 2016). These improvements suggest that NZ-FBS might be a viable alternative to the FBS traditionally used in MSCs cultures. On the other hand, the use of HS enhances the cell growth of DPSCs and provides a regularity in the expression of stem cell markers, as well as an osteoblastic potential comparable to that provided by common differentiation protocols that use 10% FBS (Ferro et al., 2012a). Currently, the use of HS with GMP procedures has successfully promoted the proliferation and differentiation IACS-8968 S-enantiomer of DPSCs into osteoblasts and the generation of well-vascularized woven bone for the first time without the use of scaffolds (Paino et al., 2017). The application of this approach using GMP-approved HS might substantially improve the bone regeneration therapy, since the scaffolds often compromise the success of grafting. Furthermore, the use of HS has also been used recently to evaluate the potential of DPSCs for dental pulp tissue regeneration. DPSCs were found to expand in human serum and also to be able to regenerate DP without compromising the angiogenic and differentiation properties of DPSCs (Piva et al., 2017). Recent studies have also reported that HPL supports the growth of MSCs better than FBS does due to its enrichment in growth factors and cytokines (Marrazzo et al., 2016; Fernandez-Rebollo et al., 2017). At a low concentration of HPL (1%), DPSCs exhibited a good viability and proliferation profile. In addition, the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation capacity was also IACS-8968 S-enantiomer sustained at the same low concentration of HPL (Marrazzo et al., 2016). All these findings suggest that animal serum and exogenous growth factors could be avoided and replaced by either HS or HPL since the growth and the differentiation of DPSCs can IACS-8968 S-enantiomer be sustained. However, basic research studies need to be performed, which could give rise to a better understanding of human diseases as well as continually evaluating the therapeutic potential of hDT-MSCs for new applications in the fields of regenerative medicine or cellular therapy. Multipotent differentiation of human dental tissue-derived mesenchymal.