Partial funding was received from the Millner Foundation support to COVID-19 applied research at the Tel Aviv University School of Public Health. Supplementary Material The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmed.2021.689994/full#supplementary-material Click here for additional data file.(484K, pdf). follow-up. The sero-conversion of SARS-CoV-2 serum antibody was 6.9% (95% CI 4.7C9.9) during the study period. The increase in SARS-CoV-2 sero-prevalence paralleled the rise in PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections among the HCWs across the country. The likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 sero-prevalence was higher in males vs. females [odds ratio (OR) 2.52 (95% CI 1.05C6.06)] and in nurses vs. physicians [OR 4.26 (95% CI 1.08C16.77)] and was associated with being quarantined due to exposure to COVID-19 patients [OR 3.54 (95% CI 1.58C7.89)] and having a positive PCR result [OR 109.5 (95% CI 23.88C502.12)]. Conclusions: A significant increase in the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection was found Diltiazem HCl among HCWs between the first and second waves of COVID-19 in Israel. Nonetheless, the sero-prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies remains low, similar to the general population. Our findings reinforce the rigorous infection control policy, including quarantine, and utilization of personal protective equipment that should be continued together with COVID-19 immunization in HCWs and the general population. 0.2 in the bivariate analysis were assessed in the multivariable models. In case of highly correlated variables, only one was included in the model. For example, since the variables ever worked in a coronavirus department and working Diltiazem HCl in a coronavirus department in the last 3 months were highly correlated (phi correlation coefficient 0.82, 0.001), we assessed only one of these variables in the multivariable models. Since our sample of sero-positive individuals was modest, our aim was to include fourCfive variables in the multivariable model (22). Since it is expected that HCWs who had a positive PCR test results will be most likely sero-positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, we conducted two models, one with and one without the variable positive SARS-Cov-2 PCR test results. This approach was followed to enable the identification of risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 transmission among HWCs. 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 27 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Results Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in HCWs The daily number of HCW employees of all general hospitals who had PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection is presented in Figure 1. There were two peaks of SARS-CoV2 infection in HCWs, the first in mid-April 2020 and the second in mid-September 2020. Since December 2020, an increase in the number of cases has been observed. The incidence in HCWs corresponded to the incidence of COVID-19 in the general population in Israel. Open in a separate window Figure 1 PCR-confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 in health care workers in general hospitals in Israel (= 95,405). Black linephysicians; light gray line with trianglesnurses; dark gray line with squaresother. Sero-Epidemiological Studies The participants’ mean age was 39.6 years (SD 11.0), and 37.5% of them were males. The demographic and professional characteristics of participants in the follow-up assessment were comparable to that of the entire cohort (Table 1). Table 1 Characteristics of the participants at baseline and follow-up assessments. (%)(%)= 7), cough (= 7), fatigue (= 9), muscle pain (= 9), and loss of taste/smell (= 8). Factors Associated With the Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Serum Antibodies A higher proportion of males was found in sero-positive than in sero-negative participants, as well as a higher proportion of nurses compared to physicians, but these differences were not statistically significant. The proportion of participants who reported ever working in a coronavirus department was higher in the sero-positive vs. sero-negative group (= 0.056). A similar but not statistically significant (= 0.098) trend was found for working in a coronavirus department in the past 3 month preceding the interview. No significant association was found between reports on exposure to a Rabbit Polyclonal to SFRS11 confirmed COVID-19 patient and SARS-CoV-2 sero-positivity (= 0.166). However, the proportion of those who had been quarantined Diltiazem HCl due to exposure to a confirmed COVID-19 case was higher among sero-positive vs. sero-negative personnel ( 0.001). A similar result was found for having a family member who had been quarantined due to exposure to a confirmed COVID-19 patient (= 0.003). Having a positive PCR result for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 was more common in the sero-positive vs. the sero-negative group ( 0.001) (Table 2). Table 2 Factors associated with the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies at follow-up. = 31)= 341)= 0.069). These models also showed that nurses were more likely than physicians to be sero-positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (= 0.076). The Nagelkerke square (pseudo square measure) for this model was 0.147. Another model that included the same variables, in addition to SARS-CoV-2.
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