Among a series of linear chain saturated fatty acids between 2 and 20 carbons, lauric acid (C12:0) was the most active (MICs 6

Among a series of linear chain saturated fatty acids between 2 and 20 carbons, lauric acid (C12:0) was the most active (MICs 6.25C25 g/ml) and capric acid (C10:0) was the second most active with MICs in the range of 50C100 g/ml [31]. of enzyme inhibition, in particular is responsible for the most severe and deadly form of the disease and is to blame for 90% of malaria-related deaths occurring in Africa [5]. Treatment of malaria is usually of high priority to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the magnitude of the problem calls for multiple approaches to tackle this world-wide problem. At present the therapeutic efforts are concentrating in three main areas: ([6C7]. However, treatment with only one drug is not sufficient and now there is a general agreement between scientists that combinations of two drugs probably offer the best option for treatment and reduces the risk of resistance. Examples of drug combinations are the artemisinin-amodiaquine pair and the artemether-lumefantine combination (Coartem) [8]. More recent developments call for fixed dose formulations which are becoming popular within the pharmaceutical industry since they improve patient compliance by reducing the daily dose, e.g., less tablets per day, they are less expensive, and the formulation reduces the risk of patients taking only one of the active drugs in a combinatorial treatment, which can contribute to the development of resistance [5]. 2.2. Fatty acid biosynthesis as a target in antimalarial chemotherapy Malaria chemotherapy is an area that is in continuous growth and revision due to the limited quantity of drugs presently available, the severe side effects of available drugs, and the continuous development of resistance developed by the parasite to some of these drugs [9]. so as to form and expand its membrane. In the principal membrane fatty acids are Rabbit Polyclonal to CDC25B (phospho-Ser323) decanoic acid (10:0), lauric acid (12:0), and myristic acid (14:0). There are several enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of fatty acids in as well as in a typical type II fatty acid biosynthetic plan (Plan 1). This biosynthetic pathway incorporates several enzymes that can be inhibited by drugs. Some interesting drug examples are isoniazid (which inhibits Fab I), triclosan (which also inhibits Fab I), and thiolactomycin and derivatives (that inhibit Fab B and Fab H) [13C14]. Among these enzymes, the enoyl-ACP reductase (has only been recently contemplated as a likely strategy to combat the parasite. Earlier work in 1992 by Kumaratilake and collaborators reports around the antimalarial properties of killing of intraerythrocytic forms of [18]. These investigators found that the degree of unsaturation was critical for the antiplasmodial effect of the fatty acids towards parasite, inasmuch as the toxicity was reported to follow the order 22:6 (( 90% death) at concentrations of 20C40 g/ml [18]. (±)-BAY-1251152 The methyl esters of the fatty acids were reported to be as potent as the free acids in killing the parasite. The authors also pointed out in their study that these fatty acids were not harmful to either normal red blood cells (RBC) or parasitized reddish blood cells (PRBC) cells and did not induce hemolysis. The binding of the fatty acids to albumin was also discussed as unlikely to inhibit the antimalarial effect of the polyunsaturated fatty acids [18]. These investigators also suggested that lipid peroxidation was the most likely mechanism responsible for the antiplasmodial activity displayed by the polyunsaturated fatty acids [18]. Later work in 1995 by Krugliak and collaborators reported around the antiplasmodial effect of a series of C18 fatty acids against the FCR3 (±)-BAY-1251152 strain of fatty acid biosynthesis as a possible explanation for the observed results with the C18 fatty acids. In 2005, a naturally occurring C18 fatty acid, named scleropyric acid (Fig. (±)-BAY-1251152 2), was isolated from your twigs of [20]. These results are important, because the authors do underline once more the potential of C18 fatty acids as antimalarial brokers and that acetylenic fatty acids also merit further exploration as antiplasmodial compounds [20]. Open in a separate windows Fig. 2 The structure of scleropyric acid. Dr. Deniz Tasdemir of the School of Pharmacy of The University or college of London.